Python is a very versatile programming language. A new developer survey about Python by the Python Software Foundation and developer tools vendor JetBrains, revealed the programming language is used for web development after data analysis. Here are the top Python web frameworks of 2019.
The Bottle framework is a small-scale or minimalistic Python frameworks. Originally meant for building web APIs, Bottle is designed to be very small and hence tries to execute everything in a single document. It has no dependencies other than the Python Standard Library. It is lightweight, fast, and easy to use, and is well-suited to building RESTful services. Netflix uses Bottle for its web interfaces.
CherryPy is an open source object-oriented Python framework which has its own multi-threaded web server and welcomes anyone who wants to contribute. Applications made using CherryPy can run on all operating systems supported by Python, that is, Windows, Linux/Unix and macOS. It to build web applications in much the same way they would build any other object-oriented Python program. This results in smaller source code developed in less time. CherryPy has a reliable HTTP/1.1-compliant, WSGI thread-pooled web server and provides support for different web servers. The framework also allows to run several HTTP servers simultaneously. It has tools for caching, encoding, authorization and supports profiling, testing, and coverage by default. A has a flexible plugin system. CherryPy is now more than ten years old and it is has proven to be very fast and stable. It is being used in production by many sites.
CubicWeb is a full stack open-source Python framework developed and curated by Logilab. CubicWeb makes use of cubes which are components to build web applications, where multiple cubes are joined together for creating an instance with the help of a database, a web server and some configuration files. CubicWeb has a query language named RQL similar to W3C’s SPARQL. It has a selection+view mechanism for semi-automatic XHTML/XML/JSON/text generation and a library of reusable components. CubicWeb is a proven end to end solution for semantic web application development that promotes quality, reusability and efficiency.
Dash is an open-source Python micro framework for building analytical web applications. It is built on top of Flask, Plotly.js, React and React Js and is very suitable for data scientists to work with. Using PythonIt dashboards can be built using Dash. It has a high-degree of customization and a simple interface for tying UI controls, including dropdowns, graphs and sliders. A Dash application is usually composed of two parts. The first part is the layout and describes how the app will look like and the second part describes the interactivity of the application. Dash provides HTML classes that allow the generation of the HTML content with Python. Dash apps are rendered in the web browser and can be deployed to servers and are hence cross-platform and mobile-ready.
Django is an open-source framework of Python that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. It was designed to help developers take applications from concept to completion as quickly as possible. Django takes security seriously and helps developers avoid many common security mistakes. It has less need for coding, and reusability of components. A few of the key features of Django, such as authentication mechanism, URL routing, template engine and database schema migration implements Object Relational Mapper (ORM) for mapping its objects to database tables. The framework underpins numerous databases including PostgreSQL, MySQL, Oracle, and SQLite, which implies that a similar coding works with various databases. Some of the busiest sites on the web leverage Django’s ability to quickly and flexibly scale. Instagram, Pinterest, Mozilla and Spotify are two such examples.
Flask is a Python microframework which has a built-in development server and debugger. In this framework, there is no built-in database interaction, but the flask-sqlalchemy package will connects an SQL database to a Flask application. The flask-sqlalchemy package needs only the database URL to connect to a SQL database. It is BSD licensed, supports unit testing, establishes secure client-side sessions and is compatible with Google App Engine.
Giotto is a full-stack framework for building applications in a functional style. It is based on the concept of Model, View and Controllers in order to allow web designers, web developers and system admins to work independently. Giotto includes controller modules that enable users to create apps on top of the web, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and command line. It is built with a view for the code to be easily maintainable over a long period, which would eventually result in deploying the code quickly. It has an inbuilt cache with support for Memcache and Redis, an automatic URL and database persistency with SQLAlchemy.
Pyramid is a mega framework of Python that makes decisions for the user. But if one does not fit into their viewpoint, he ends up fighting his decisions. It stops making decisions as the application grows, and so, its primary goal is to achieve as much as with minimalistic complexity. It can work equally well with small as well as full-scale applications and has a flexible authentication and authorization.
Sanic is a Python 3.6+ web server and web framework that’s written to go fast and handles fast HTTP responses via asynchronous request handling. It allows the usage of the async/await syntax making the code non-blocking and speedy. It also welcomes contributions. In a benchmark test with one process and 100 connections, Sanic was able to handle 33,342 requests per second.
Tornado is a scalable, non-blocking web server and web application Python framework. It was developed for use by FriendFeed; the company was acquired by Facebook in 2009 and Tornado was open-sourced soon after. The framework is built specifically to handle asynchronous processes. By using non-blocking network I/O, Tornado can scale to tens of thousands of open connections, making it ideal for long polling, WebSockets, and other applications that require a long-lived connection to each user. It serves the application with its own HTTP server and hence the user has to set up how the application is served.
TurboGears has two versions, 1 and 2, among which TurboGears 2 is the latest one and is a full stack framework. The framework starts as a microframework and scales up to a full stack solution. It supports sharding, multiple data-exchange formats and has a built in extensibility pluggable applications and standard WSGI components. It allows developers to rapidly develop extensible data-driven web apps. The full-stack framework makes use of components such as Genshi, Repoze, SQLAlchemy, and WebOb to easily and quickly develop apps requiring database connectivity.
Web2Py is one of the most popular open source web frameworks for Python. In addition to being written in Python, Web2Py also comes with a Python interpreter. It supports model-view-controller (MVC) architecture, along with commonly used web development practices like server-side sessions, self-submission of web forms and safe handling of uploaded files. It has a web-based IDE and batteries that helps developers to build custom web applications. Web2Py supports MVC architectural pattern. The pattern enables developers to simplify development of complex web applications by dividing them into models, views, and controllers. It helps in keeping the web application portable. It can be deployed on several virtual private networks (VPNs) and cloud platforms. It comes with a package that includes a web-based admin interface, web-based management interface, SQL database, database abstraction layer, error logging and ticketing system, and multi-threaded web server. The package enables developers to build a variety of web applications efficiently without using external tools and services. Web2Py also improves the security of web applications by addressing top security issues.