Have you ever used a machine learning algorithm and got confused by its predictions? How did it make this decision? How do we ensure trust in these systems? To answer these questions, recently, a team of researchers at Red Hat introduced a new library known as TrustyAI.
TrustyAI looks into explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) solutions to address the trustworthiness in machine learning and decision services landscapes. This library helps in increasing the trust in decision-making processes that depend on AI predictive models.
Why this research
Automation of decisions is crucial to deal with complex business processes that can respond to changes in business conditions and scenarios. The researchers stated, “The orchestration and automation of decision services is one of the key aspects in handling such business processes. Decision services can leverage different kinds of predictive models underneath, from rule-based systems to decision trees or machine learning-based approaches.”
“One important aspect is the trustworthiness of such decision services, especially when automated decisions might impact human lives. For this reason, it is important to be able to explain decision services,” the researchers added. This is the reason why the researchers created this XAI library. The library leverages different explainability techniques for explaining decision services and black-box AI systems.
TrustyAI Explainability Toolkit is an open-source XAI library that offers value-added services to a business automation solution. It combines machine learning models and decision logic to enrich automated decisions by including predictive analytics. In particular, the TrustyAI Explainability Toolkit leverages three explainability techniques for black-box AI systems, which are
- LIME: Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations (LIME) is one of the most widely used approaches for explaining a prediction generated by a black-box model.
- SHAP: SHAP or SHapley Additive exPlanations is a popular open-source library that works well with any machine learning or deep learning model.
- Counterfactual explanation: Counterfactual explanation is an essential approach in providing transparency and explainability to the result of predictive models
The researchers investigated the techniques mentioned above, benchmarking both LIME and counterfactual methods against existing implementations. For benchmarking, they introduced three explainability algorithms, TrustyAI-LIME, TrustyAI-SHAP and the TrustyAI counterfactual search.
Contributions of this research
The important contributions made by the researchers are-
- TrustyAI Explainability Toolkit is the first comprehensive set of tools for explainability AI that works well in the decision service domain.
- This research is an extended approach for generating Local Interpretable model-agnostic explanations, especially built for decision services.
- The research showed a counterfactual explanation generation approach based on constraint problem solver.
- An extended version of SHAP that enables background data identification and includes error bounds while generating confidence scores.
- In terms of sparsity, TrustyAI manages to fully satisfy the requirement of changing the least amount of features as possible.
According to the researchers, local explanations generated with TrustyAI-LIME are more effective than LIME reference implementation. It does not require training data to accurately sample and encode perturbed samples, making it fit better in the decision service scenario.
The planned extensions to SHAP within TrustyAI-SHAP have the potential to greatly improve diagnostic ability when designing explainers. TrustyAI-SHAP aims to address feature attributions by providing accuracy metrics and confidence intervals. Lastly, the TrustyAI counterfactual search achieved good performance relative to the Alibi baseline. TrustyAI requires significantly less time to retrieve a valid counterfactual.
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A Technical Journalist who loves writing about Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence. A lover of music, writing and learning something out of the box.